What causes acne?

Acne usually begins during puberty with the production of the androgynous hormone in both men and women.

Causing the following skin changes.

  • Glands in the skin, pores or follicles on the face, upper chest, and back known as sebaceous glands increase the production of sebum, an oily substance whose function is to "lubricate" and protect the skin surface.
  • The skin in these areas also suffers from a condition known as hyperkeratinization, which consists of a thickening of the outer layer of the skin. This thickening of the skin can cause clogged pores known as comedones. Open comedones that are not blocked are called "blackheads." Closed comedones are called "whiteheads."
  • Propionibacterium acnes is a bacterium that causes acne and is part of the composition of the skin
  • Both the clogged gland (follicle) and bacteria can cause inflammation of the skin, causing red spots or what we know as acne.

It is the combination of these factors that causes acne, pimples, whiteheads, blackheads, and, in severe cases, cysts, which lead to painful red bumps.